TiO2 nanowired delivery of DL-3-n-butylphthalide (DL-NBP) with neprilysin induces neuroprotection in Alzheimer's disease
TiO2 nanowired DL-3-n-butylphthalide (DL-NBP) reduces brain pathology in concussive head injury (CHI). Since, neprilysin (NPL) is the rate-limiting enzyme for amyloid-beta peptide (AβP) we demonstrate that DL-NBP with NPL if delivered together has superior neuroprotective effects in AD. DL-NBP alone in high doses was also able to significantly reduce AD pathology following intraventricular (i.c.v.) administration of AβP (1-40, 250 ng/10 µl), once daily) for 4 weeks. Co-administration of TiO2 nanowired DL-NBP (40 mg/kg, i.v. once daily for 7 days) with NPL (100 µl in 50 µl, i.c.v.) once daily for 1 week after 2 weeks of AβP infusion significantly reduced brain pathology and behavioural dysfunction. Increased NPL in hippocampus (400 pg/g) with significant decrease in the AβP deposition (45 pg/g from untreated control 75 pg/g; control 40±4 pg/g) was seen with this combined treatment. Interestingly, these changes were also evident when TiO2-DL-NBP was given alone at a high dose (60 mg/kg, i.v.) for 7 days or 10 days under identical conditions. These observations are the first to show that co-administration of TiO2-nanowired DL-NBP with NPL or NBP alone could reduce AD pathology if given for longer time periods or in high doses, not reported earlier.
Mapping Air Quality with Kite-Based Sensors
Monitoring the concentration of environmental pollutants is critical for effective decisionmaking about how to improve air quality. The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) such as drones is attractive to provide detailed data about the spatial variation of air quality metrics; however, UAVs have flight times limited by battery life, public acceptance of UAVs is challenging, and there are increasingly stringent restrictions on the safe operating zones for UAVs. This project explores an alternative kite-based system for aerial monitoring of air quality. Kites have the potential to be lower cost than UAVs, require less energy to operate, and may have operational advantages such as flying at higher wind speeds and in areas inaccessible to UAVs. This project extends past work using kites for environmental monitoring by evaluating several potential improvements: (1) flight control multi-line kites to maneuver the kite precisely throughout the wind window and (2) suspension of a lightweight air sampling tube from the kite system to ground-based sensing equipment.
Mesoporous adsorbents for perfluorinated compounds
In this project we plan to develop porous adsorbents for cleanup of water contaminated by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid. Most of existing technologies are expensive and insufficiently efficient. The proposed materials with high adsorption capacity (up to 6.8 mmol/g) will be used for reversible adsorption of these contaminants from drinking water or wastewater. The innovative aspect of the project is the use of bridged polysilsesquioxanes combining high structural stability with high concentration of surface amino-groups serving as adsorption sites. The project is based on the hypothesis that porous hybrid materials containing bridged amines can adsorb PFOA and PFOS from contaminated water with significantly enhanced adsorption capacity. Application of the developed adsorbent in water filters will significantly reduce the exposure of people in affected areas to PFOA and PFOS. It will improve public health by reducing the rate of related illnesses, i.e. developmental effects, cancer, immune and thyroid effects, etc.
Synthesis and Characterization of Fluorinated Hydrocarbon Anion Exchange Resins for the Extraction of Perfluorinated Chemicals
We propose to design and test a continuous-flow water purification device that uses a novel fluorinated anion exchange sorbent for removal of perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) including PFOA and PFOS from drinking water. Our idea improves upon adsorption technologies such as activated carbon and anion exchange resins, which are not specific for perfluoroalkyl compounds. We have preliminary data showing the synthesis of a mixed-mode fluorinated polymer-anion exchange resin is straightforward and the ratio of fluorocarbon/anion exchange functionality can be potentially tailored. The fluorous affinity plus the anion exchange interaction should result in improved selectivity for PFCs and reduced competition by organic matter in water. Adsorption kinetic studies in both the batch and column modes are outlined. Because of the complete polymeric nature of our adsorbent, facile cleaning and long term stability permitting reuse of the material is expected. Our expected outcomes are: (1) Synthesize and characterization of fluorinated polymer- anion exchange resins (2) Build a continuous flow point-of-use water purification device and characterize binding of PFCs (3) Characterize adsorption in the presence of organic matter and (4) Demonstrate reusability of adsorption columns.
UV-LED Photocatalytic fuel vapor emissions control
A photocatalytic process that can be incorporated into a current evaporative fuel vapor emissions control system in an automobile will be fabricated and assessed for proof of concept as a method to reduce/eliminate evaporative fuel emissions. UV-LEDs will be used as the light sources for the process, while a suitable photocatalytic film, such as TiO2, will be used as the photocatalyst. While photocatalysis for gas-phase oxidation of organic vapors has been researched extensively, the application of photocatalysis within the evaporative fuel vapor emissions control system in an automobile is a new and innovative idea! UV-LEDs are small, robust solid-state light sources that require low direct current (DC) power, which could be provided by the battery already contained within the automobile. In addition, they can be turned on and off instantaneously and have very long lifetimes, upwards of 10000 hours. Photocatalysis is a process in which light, as opposed to heat, activates a catalyst. Therefore, photocatalysis can be used to oxidize organic vapors at room temperature! In brief, light energy excites the electrons in the photocatalytic material, creating surface active sites that participate in oxidation and reduction reactions.
Reactive Electrochemical Membrane (REM) Filtration for Water Treatment
EPA launched its drinking water guidelines for Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) in response to rising concerns of these chemicals toward drinking water security. Many conventional water or wastewater treatment processes are ineffective at removing perfluorochemicals due to their strong resistance to hydrolysis, photolysis, and chemical or microbial degradation. This proposal will perform a holistic evaluation of removal of PFASs via reactive electrochemical membrane (REM) filtration, which combines ultrafiltration and electrochemical oxidation. REM acts as a filter and anode that reacts with PFASs and blocks chemical pollutants. Our goals are to demonstrate that REM has high potential and unparalleled performance in the removal of PFASs for drinking water supply. Particularly, we will investigate the degradation and removal mechanisms of two model PFASs: PFOA and PFOS. Moreover, we will assess the stability of REM filters to chemical degradation and resistance to surface fouling as well as the impacts on filtration performances (e.g., permeate flux decline). This project will deliver new insight into the development of novel and sustainable water treatment technologies to support POU applications in residential and small community water purification for improved water quality and human health protection.
Microplastics, Macro Problem: A Novel Technique to Remove Microplastics From Water Using a Modified Electrostatic Filter
Microplastics are an increasingly problematic aspect of plastic pollution. Estimated to contaminate 83% of tap water supplies worldwide, microplastics are sponges for toxic and carcinogenic chemicals that pose a health threat to humans and marine life. Currently, there are no feasible options to remove microplastics from water that are both effective and economical. By applying principles used in electrostatic smoke precipitators to remove particulate matter from air, this technology uses electromagnets and electrostatic charges to ionize and attract microplastics, and then effectively filter them from water. By varying the strength of the electromagnets, the filter shows trends of increasing microplastic filtration with greater charges of the electromagnets. Results of testing shows that the filter with the highest electromagnet charge successfully filtered an average of 24.5% of large sized (2.5mm) microplastics and 14.88% of small sized (1.05mm) microplastics. This trend differentiates this filter because it does not rely on mesh/membrane size to remove the microplastics. Given that a 9V battery is the power supply used, it is logical that a stronger power source would remove more microplastics. This research shows potential in both commercial and industrial levels, with applications in a variety of settings, ranging from household laundry to wastewater treatment.
Model of Straight Pipe Prevalence in Rural Alabama
Although technically illegal, site inspections in three Alabama counties indicate that straight pipes (raw sewage discharges from homes) are common. These conditions in Alabama have attracted the attention of UN Special Rapporteurs on Human Rights to Water and Sanitation and Extreme Poverty. Additionally, recent articles in major media outlets, including Newsweek and The New York Times, have covered wastewater in Alabama. Despite the international attention and the troubling evidence of adverse health effects, no one knows how common these untreated wastewater discharges are in rural Alabama. We are using data gathered through past onsite inspections, soil data and parcel value in three Alabama counties to build a model that provides the first ever estimate of the number and location of these household raw sewage discharges in rural Alabama. The innovative aspects of this project include: (1) building the first model to quantify straight pipe discharges in the US, (2) integrating multidisciplinary data and expert knowledge in modeling local wastewater issues, and (3) generating maps estimating the magnitude of raw sewage discharge in rural watersheds. We propose that our GIS based computer model will be able to reliably predict regions most in need of support for rural wastewater.
Soil amendments for enhanced phosphorus retention: Implications for green infrastructure design
Neither of the technology has been studied extensively in the context of green stormwater infrastructure for nutrient removal. Both WTR and coir are waste substrates and have the potential to be re-used on land in a sustainable manner for different purposes. Many studies have shown promising ability of Al and Fe-based WTR in reducing phosphorus leaching from agricultural landscapes. This study is unique wherein we investigated the ability of Ca-WTR to reduce nutrient leaching in experimental bioretention mesocosm treated with various compost additions for urban stormwater applications. Coir has mostly been studied for its potential use as soilless substrate for plants. Benefits from coir such as increased water holding capacity and flowering, and reduced evapotranspiration has been observed. Here, we also study coir for nutrient retention in a laboratory column study. Results can be used by water managers and practitioners to promote sustainable reuse of waste materials as filter substrates in urban green infrastructure applications for improved stormwater quality. WTR is cheaper alternative to the expensive engineered proprietary filter media substrates used in stormwater infrastructures and can be acquired freely from municipal drinking water plants. Coir is a tropical plant and thus its availability and cost may be regionally dependent.
Molecular tools to predict cyanobacteria toxin production
This work will provide valuable insight into the mechanistic interaction of toxin production in cyanobacteria with different environmental factors, and provide fundamental physiological and transcriptional information to further explore and predict the behavior and impacts of cyanobacterial blooms in freshwater systems. The results of this study will offer an opportunity to develop approaches for the prediction and monitoring of HABs as well provide insight to the molecular level approaches for mitigation of HABs. While the scope of the proposed project is limited to few environmental factors, we must consider that different environmental conditions are expected to occur with many other nutrients present in any given water system. Consequently, future studies will benefit from examining HABs in freshwaters using a more holistic approach employing a combination of emerging (gene transcription) and conventional (growth rate) technologies.
Vermicompost from waste algae
This project aims to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate the efficacy and feasibility of harvesting algae from stormwater systems for use as a vermicompost amendment as a cost effective means of reducing nutrients and heavy metals in stormwater systems and turning a waste product into a useable sustainable product.
Neuroprotection in Brain blast injury at hot environmentt by Nanowired delivery of cerebrolysin with mesenchymal stem cells
Blast brain injury (bBI) was inflicted in a shock tube where compressed air-and helium-induced membrane rupture causing pressure waves (100, 150 or 200 kPa) with velocity of ca. 400 to 450 m/sec. The animals survived 8 or 12 h after bBI. Identical bBI was induced in rats exposed to HE at 38°C for 2 h daily for 1 week. Our innovation showed a progressive BBB breakdown in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, thalamus, hypothalamus and brain stem correlating well with blast overpressure strength. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) reduced by -30 to -58 % associated with edema formation with 8 to 16 % higher volume swelling. Expansion of neuropil, sponginess and neuronal, glial and myelin damages are quite frequent in bBI that were 2-to 3-fold higher after identical bBI at HE. Nanodelivery of CBL (5 ml/kg, i.v.) or MSCs (106 cells, i.v.) either 30 min or 1 h after bBI significantly reduced brain pathology in normal animals however TiO2 nanodelivery of CBL (5 ml/kg, i.v.) together with MSCs (106 cells, i.v.) is needed for neuroprotection in bBI at HE. This innovation showed that nanowired CBL and MSCs is needed for neuroprotection after bBI in HE animals.
Dementia Diagnosis Using Speech Related Features
Diagnosing the dementia is an important first step to ensure we have appropriate treatment or care. In general, there are three tests for this diagnosis: Laboratory tests, Brain-imaging tests and psychological tests. One protocol for collecting speech samples for aphasia analysis work is to ask volunteers to describe what they see in a picture. They are able to view the picture while they speak. The test would be able to be administered in a wide variety of settings simply by obtaining a standardized speech sample and analyzing its characteristics to determine the presence of specific patterns that indicate potential presence of the disease. The criteria for differentiation have been preliminary investigated and are promising, with a 64% sensitivity and 95% specificity, but the sample size was limited. Obviously, a larger training population is needed to develop tighter speech pattern screening criteria and to better separate the currently normal population from those at risk. The main gap that pilot studies could not address properly is the amount of collected samples. The main goal of this work is to collect more samples to make the final product more accurate and reliable; i.e., to increase both the sensitivity and the specificity
Quantum Dot Polymer for Next-gen Screens
The material is a thiol–yne nanocomposite polymer tailored to hold light-emitting quantum dots, tiny semiconductors whose size and composition can be precisely tuned to produce bright, clear, and energy-efficient colors. According to a study published by the lab’s Optical Sciences Division in March 2018, the thiol-yne polymer binds strongly to the quantum dots with a novel ligand and has a uniform distribution throughout the matrix. The material can be polymerized by ultraviolet light or thermal curing.
Collagen for enhanced tissue repair and replacement.
Injuries to tendon and ligaments are widespread, debilitating and often problematic to difficult to heal. Tendon and ligament repair is a multi-billion dollar market in need of an improved medical solution. Collagen in the main structural component of nearly all tissues in the body (tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, skin, bone, teeth). Injuries to mainly collagen-based tissues (tendons and ligaments) are notoriously difficult to heal. We are able to control the assembly of tropocollagen, a collagen precursor, into highly organized collagen structures (collagen sheets, tubes and 3D printed structures). Our method of collagen assembly results in high-density materials with high mechanical strength which is advantageous for surgical replacement and repair. Once implanted, we have developed technology to deliver tropocollagen to damaged tissues. Tropocollagen undergoes self-assembly at the site of injury to assist defect repair without the need for cells. This is particularly beneficial for tendons and ligaments that have few cells.
Bio-Ionic Liquid Conjugated Gels: Hemostatic, Antimicrobial and Highly Adhesive Hydrogel for Traumatic Surgery
Traumatic injury damages the soft tissues and skeletal muscle, leading to fatality from hemorrhagic loss of blood and infection which needs to be addressed by early onset trauma management. The coagulation process, divided into primary hemostasis and the coagulation cascade, ensures the prevention of excessive bleeding and converts the blood into stable and insoluble fibrin. In cases of severe trauma, the rate of hemostasis is not rapid enough to prevent excessive loss of blood. Traditionally, compression using gauze and suturing the wounded tissues have been employed to achieve rapid coagulation. These traditional methods are ineffective in controlling hemorrhage involved in surgical procedures. We conjugated the biocompatible polymers and polymerized using visible light to form a sticky hydrogel that can be used as a bioadhesive. In this study, we synthesised hydrogel-based surgical adhesives for wound healing with properties including mechanical characteristics comparable to the native tissues, antimicrobial, high adhesion, biodegradability, high biocompatibility, and ease-of-use.
Wearable device for continuous monitoring and intelligent intervening of targeted body region
A wearable device that will detect the critical information of the body part. Then deliver treatment on demand if the sensor signal is at certain range or over a threshold. Meanwhile, the data are stored and collected to find the pattern of the symptom for both individuals and groups. Existing medical devices are either bulk and inconvenient to use by the patients themselves, or slow and late if the patients need to find a clinic or go back to home to use. This wearable device will deliver treatment on demand when the symptom attacks or provide preemptive treatment before the symptom starts after enough personal data are collected and processed.
Shaker Shield: Seismic Hazard and Kinetic Energy Risk Reduction
Our technology is a rapidly deployable, seismic shield. Initial 3D model and fabric tests ave indicated that our patent pending design a will provide superior protection from falling debris during seismically induced structural failure events. It is based upon a urethane-based fabric (augmented with a proprietary resin) that is deployed via rip-cord initiation of a solid propellant. This technology will also offer benefits in a variety of other scenarios such as flash flood events and other natural disasters due to its inherent ability to be used as a flotation device that is durable and immediately available. Eventually may also have the potential for use in certain additional situations such as defense.
Multi-scale chemical reactor modeling
The multi-scale simulation platform combines all relevant scales for modeling chemical reactor processes in a comprehensive and user-friendly fashion. Through optimizing processes first in silico, expensive experimentation can be reduced by focusing on the most promising changes in catalyst, additives, and operating conditions. Ultimately more efficient reactors can be designed by end users in the chemical industry, who will be able to optimize their processes to reduce operational costs in terms of feed-stock and energy consumption. By saving on the environmental impact in terms of chemicals and energy during testing and implementation as well as delivering a cleaner process in the end, the societal impacts of a predictive multi-scale reactor modeling platform will be substantial.
PODMEMS: Enables MEMS to change performance on demand (POD).
What is transformational?: A PODMEMS device is one that is able to monitor its state and feed back forces onto its proof mass that are proportional to displacement, velocity, or acceleration. Such feedback effectively increases or decreases the system's effective stiffness, damping, or mass. Effective quantities may be positive, zero, or negative. How is it different from existing technologies?: Existing MEMS have a constant mass, damping, and stiffness, which are subject to process variations, so no two MEMS behave identically. Existing MEMS are limited by manufacturing constraints. Incremental advances of existing MEMS are made by pushing the limits of manufacturing, which reduces yield and robustness. PODMEMS can change such quantities on demand. What is the potential impact?: PODMEMS are able to correct for process variations, behave identically, drastically change resonance frequencies, change damping to over-damped or under-damped, lock into a frequency that is independent of temperature, match primary to secondary modes in a gyro, increase effective quality factor, increase nonlinearity, mimic the behavior of another device, behave as a smaller or larger sized device, etc. PODMEMS enable behaviors that are far beyond the limits of existing manufacturing methods.
Phospho-CSE1L Antibody-Drug Conjugates for Extensive Cancer Treatments
Typical antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) can only treat a specific cancer type. Also, as tumors are often heterogeneous, ADCs won’t be able to eradicate heterogeneous cancer cells and this renders cancer relapse. For example : kadcyla only treats Her2-positive breast tumor, recurrences are easy due to proliferation of HER2-nagative tumor cells. CSE1L (1) is highly expressed in most cancer types, (2) it exists as an microvesicle/exosome membrane protein that primarily accumulates in tumors. (3) CSE1L can be stimulated by oncogene to become phospho-CSE1L. Tumor cells often express abnormal oncogene thus have high phospho-CSE1L , while normal cells don’t express abnormal oncogene. Thus, phospho-CSE1L is a potential target for developing antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) that can specifically target tumor cells and extensive cancer treatments. Tumors release much more microvesicles/exosomes. The “CSE1L-ADC and phospho-CSE1L-ADC” featured in our patent (Claim: An anti-CSE1L carrier-conjugated antibody or an anti-phospho-CSE1L carrier-conjugated antibody for in vivo tumor targeting.) may be able to offer better therapy efficacy and enables development of ADCs cancer drugs, radiation cancer drugs, liposome cancer drugs for treating most cancer types, as well as targeted tumor contrast agents and so forth.
Planar microphone array for spatial audio recording
Capture and reproduction of 3D audio is becoming increasingly important for many applications including AR/VR, media, human-machine communications, smart homes, hearing aids, teleconferencing and active noise control in confined spaces. Current microphone arrays used to capture 3D sound are binaural, tetrahedral or spherical in shape, making them bulky and difficult to integrate into miniaturized devices. ANU researchers have addressed this limitation by developing a planar 2D microphone array technology that allows 3D spatial sound to be recorded by a compact microphone array arranged in a planar geometry. This system exploits a special property of the Legendre functions (which represents the sound field) and uses a combination of omni-directional microphone units to achieve the full functionality of a spherical microphone array in a very compact, planar form factor. Custom developed algorithms associated with the planar array produce spatial audio signal streams in the form of ‘Higher Order Ambisonics” which is compatible with the latest industrial standard for spatial sound encoding (MPEG-H) as well as the spatial sound format commonly used for YouTube VR contents. Thus, the planar array is compatible with most spatial sound rendering engines on the market and its compact size makes it incorporable into various consumer electronics.
Control of electromagnetic wave scattering via a Huygens’ metadevice
Our time-varying metadevice is made of both electric and magnetic meta-atoms with independently controlled modulation, and the phase of this modulation is imprinted on the scattered parametric waves (sidebands), controlling their shapes and directions. Using optimized modulation signals, we achieve a high conversion efficiency of over 75% from the carrier wave to the target sidebands and the sideband scatterings are fully controlled by the amplitude and phase of modulation. Manipulation of these sidebands is of great importance from both a fundamental and application point-of-view. A number of optical systems with dynamic modulation rely on sideband control, e.g. sideband cooling and magnet-free optical isolation. Time-modulated linear arrays (TMAs) also rely on the ability to generate multiple beams at different sidebands, with different shapes and features, for use in multi-function radars, direction finding and in mobile wireless communication. Our metadevice can be applied to a wide-range of devices and applications, and as such, it could benefit a variety of company types and may present multiple potential licensing opportunities. We are interested in identifying industry partners that have a need for this technology, in order to create functional prototype devices. This technology is patent protected.
Quantum Dot Laser Portfolio
This technology includes a way to epitaxially grow quantum dot lasers on Si that are free of misfit dislocation. These misfit dislocation free quantum dot lasers offer an extended lifetime and improve device performance reliability while maintaining high performance levels. It also offers a process of using a less expensive alternative for growing light emitting material and a low-cost, highly scalable approach to integrating a compound-semiconductor laser or light source with silicon-photonic circuitry that provides an enabling technology for the low-cost manufacture of efficient lasers on silicon. Last, the portfolio includes a technology that proposes a photonic integrated circuit based on quantum dots, grown on Si that allows lasers, modulators, and photodetectors to be integrated.
MicroLEDs with Ultralow Leakage Current
As the ratio of the sidewall perimeter to emitting area of an LED increases, the effects of sidewall damage and surface recombination are more pronounced. Therefore, microLEDs with light-emitting areas less than 100x100 µm2, are especially susceptible to parasitic leakage. Normally, sidewall passivation using conformal dielectric deposition is employed to reduce leakage current. However, sidewall passivation using merely dielectric deposition is insufficient to remove the effects of sidewall damage and surface recombination in microLEDs. This technology describes a sidewall passivation method by chemical treatment on microLEDs that minimizes the effects of sidewall damage and surface recombination. The passivated microLEDs can achieve higher efficiency, and at smaller device sizes, than devices without sidewall treatments.
imple & Rapid Bacterial Detection Using Chimeric Phages
Rapidly identifying a bacterial infection in order to correctly target and kill bacteria has life-saving potential. Annually, millions of people are given the wrong antibiotic resulting in tens of thousands of deaths. This technology allows for the identification and potentially therapeutic targeting of multitudes of bacteria. The technology enables engineered-phages linked to a detection or cytotoxic platform to be designed against a vast array of bacteria. In order to generate a rapid colored result, the engineered-phages linked to gold or silver nanoparticles cause trigger the aggregation of the particles upon binding the targeted bacteria which in turn produces an easily measured visible color change. The color change is evident in 20 minutes or less making it substantially fasted that current technologies. The same approach can be applied killing bacteria if the engineered-phage is linked to a cytotoxin. This would allow for a specific and targeted antibacterial treatment. The flexibility in targeting, combined with the specificity of targeting and its speed make it unique and hugely versatile.
Process to Improve Lithium Ion Battery Life and Capacity
This new self-optimization process addresses a key problem in lithium ion batteries associated with retaining full charge capacity through multiple charges – reduction of electrode volume change during charging and discharging of the battery. By reducing volume change of anode materials from 400% to less than 1%, with full charge and discharge cycles, long-term cyclability is achieved. To enable this technology, a cost-effective process can be integrated into production lines for mass production. It is a self-optimization process for preparing ion battery electrodes that significantly reduces the volume change of silicon (Si) anode materials during full charging and discharging cycles. The self-optimization process and coating can be applied to any anode and cathode active materials showing high volume change during charging and discharging.
Superior neuroprotection in concussive head injury at hot environment by nanowired delivery of cerebrolysin with neprilysin combined with antibodies to amyloid beta peptide
CHI was inflicted by dropping a weight of 114.6 g from 20 cm height on the exposed parietal skull bone in rats either acclimatized at RT (21±1°C) or at HE (34°C for 4 h per day for 2 weeks in biological oxygen demand incubator (BOD, relative humidity 45-47 %, wind speed 20-25 cm/sec). HE alone did not result in BBB breakdown, edema formation or changes in AbP or tau levels. However, CHI in HE resulted in 250 to 285 % higher breakdown of the BBB to Evans blue albumin and radioiodine (-I) and neuronal, glial and axonal damage following identical CHI at RT after 24 trauma. The AbP and tau in CHI at HE increased by 3- to 6-fold in the CSF (control AbP 0.23±0.04; CHI-RT 0.82±0.05; CHI-HE 2.34±0.12 ng/ml); (Control tau 20±2; CHI-RT 34±6; CHI-HE 76±8 pg/ml). Nanodelivery of cerebrolysin (2.5 ml/kg, i.v.) together with 50 µl 1:20 AbP antibodies i.c.v. 4 h after CHI resulted in significant reductions in AbP levels and brain pathology in CHI at HE. Our innovation show better therapeutic avenues in treating exacerbation of brain damage following CHI at HE.
Nanowired delivery of antibodies to tau and neuronal nitric oxide synthase with cerebrolysin reduced pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease after concussive had injury
PD like symptoms was produced in mice by administering 1-metyl-4-fenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin (MPTP, 20 mg/kg, i.p.) daily within 2-h intervals for 5 days in normal or following concussive head injury (CHI). CHI was inflicted by an impact of 0.224 N over the right parietal bone by dropping a weight of 114.6 g from 20 cm. On the 8th day brain pathology was examined. CHI exacerbated p-tau by 1.5 to 2.3 fold in the CSF and in the right and left hemispheres in PD as compared to uninjured PD group. CHI also enhanced greater expression of nNOS, neuronal or glial cell injuries in PD as compared to the uninjured PD group. TiO2 nanowired delivery of cerebrolysin (2.5 ml/kg, i.v.) together with monoclonal p-tau antibodies (phospho S396, 1:20, 30 µl, i.c.v.) with nNOS antibodies (EP1855Y, 1.20 40 µl, i.c.v.) into the left lateral cerebral ventricle 5 days after MPTP significantly reduced blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and edema formation in both hemispheres after CHI in PD as compared to CBL given alone. The p-tau levels and nNOS expression were also significantly reduced in the CSF and in brain after these combined treatments in PD following CHI indicating novel therapeutic measure in PD after CHI.
Catalytic Formation of Syngas from Biomass
To date, the most common biomass refining process involves the transformation of cellulose to glucose and then to ethanol, which is ultimately used as a biofuel. However, this biological approach of hydrolysis followed by fermentation has the disadvantages of (1) requiring costly enzymes, which suffer from short shelf life, and (2) most of the starting material ends up as unusable waste. The proposed novel technology produces syngas by reaction of a carbohydrate with a polyoxometalate catalyst in the presence of concentrated acid, under anaerobic conditions. As a result, carbon monoxide is generated, followed by the electrochemical release of hydrogen. This two-step process ensures complete digestion of biomass into its basic components that can be further processed to produce fuels and organic materials, resulting in a potential reduction in global petroleum dependency. In addition, it allows for easy separation and storage of the desired products.
Fluoride-based MRI Agents for Advanced Applications
Owing to the expanding aging population, age-related and ‘modern world’ diseases have become the main concerns in the healthcare arena. These, in turn, have increased the demand for target-specific, high-quality imaging agents that will enhance the use of MRI as a diagnostic tool and as a therapeutic monitoring platform. Many of the currently available contrast agents are not adequately specific and are therefore not suitable for a variety of applications. The 19FNC imaging agent addresses these issues. So far, the challenge in creating soluble fluoride based MRI agents has hindered their use in products. The Weizmann Institute researchers have successfully solved this problem by decorating the 19FNCs surfaces with a biocompatible poly(ethylene glycol), which eliminated the dipolar interactions while preserving the nanocrystals’ high-resolution 19F-NMR properties. The end result demonstrated high specificity, as well as satisfactory body clearance and surface modifiability. Applying this technology as a specific marker for MRI can have a huge impact on the medical diagnostic field, including diagnosis and monitoring the progression of diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, multiple sclerosis and even cancer. Moreover, it can be used to track therapeutic cells and report on their therapeutic capabilities.