E. Hughes, H. Cartwright, A. Stevens, L. Chen, E. Van Keuren, J. Reder, M. Ramstack, P. Kang
Keywords: Polymer, nanoparticles, drug delivery, multicomponent nanoparticles, acute kidney injury
Summary:APP-103TM is a novel polymer-based nanoparticle engineered for treatment of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) by quenching reactive oxygen species (ROS) and simultaneously releasing an anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory drug, vanillyl alcohol (VA). Peroxalate ester bonds along the backbone of PVAX, the active ingredient in APP-103TM, react with ROS to release VA at the site of oxidative stress. APP-103TM is formed by the emulsion-solvent evaporation method, during which PVAX is encapsulated into nanoparticles for intravenous injection. This formulation has shown efficacy in mouse and rat models, and is under development for clinical application in humans. The novel polymer PVAX also shows potential for treatment of other conditions associated with inflammation and ROS accumulation, and additional formulations and applications of similar PVAX-based nanoparticles are discussed.