Techno-economic assessments of fuels or electricity production from biomass with CO2 capture

H. Luo, E.D. Larson
Princeton University,
United States

Keywords: biomass, BECCS, negative emissions


The Princeton-led Net-Zero America study ( identified several cost-optimized technological pathways by which the U.S. could achieve net-zero greenhouse gas emissions economy wide by 2050. In all of the pathways, technologies that convert sustainably produced biomass feedstocks into electricity or fuels and simultaneously capture byproduct CO2 for underground storage (BECCS) play critical roles, because they provide energy carriers with negative lifecycle-carbon footprints. This talk will summarize work undertaken to better understand the prospective economics of different BECCS technologies. Cost estimates are based on detailed and self-consistent process designs, Aspen+ performance simulations, and scoping cost estimation methodologies across a variety of low- or negative-carbon processes. For electricity generation, technologies evaluated include biomass combustion steam power plants with i) conventional post-combustion amine CO2 capture and ii) post-combustion capture using molten-carbonate fuel cells. For fuels production, gasification-based BECCS processes for hydrogen, ammonia, methanol, and Fischer-Tropsch fuels were evaluated.