Bipolar Protonic Semiconductor Physics and Model for Pure Liquid Water and Its Applications

B. Jie, T.C. Jie, C.T. Sah
United States

Keywords: melted ice lattice, Tunnel space, Protons, Prohols, Self-trap


The two ion species of pure liquid water are not the traditional-textbook-taught positive hydronium ions and negative hydroxide ions, because the oxygen ionic cores are too strongly bound to migrate and transport electrical charge and mechanical mass. Liquid water maintains the hexagonal close packed ice lattice and the migrating particles that transport the kinetic energy and momentum or mechanical MASS and electric CHARGE are the many protons and prohols; the latter, the missing protons. The melted ice lattice has one half of the proton sites or lattice points occupied, each by a proton, and the other half empty. Protons migrate and transport in the empty space and prohols in the proton-occupied space. There are also self-generated proton and prohol traps or "kinetic energy and momentum wells" that arrest the protons and prohols by cutting off their mobility and diffusivity. The impurity ions move readily when dilute, through the six Angstrom wide hexagonal tunnels of the melted ice lattice, along both the c-axis and the a-b plane. On the Foundation physics side, our Water physics and model and its PROTONICS are easily extended to PHASE TRANSITIONS of Materials, and to Nucleonics and Cosmology, in the 4D spacetime of volume and bulk, without or with a closed boundary, the latter, two or more connected spacetime's, devoid of missing energies and masses, and hidden variables. On the Application Physics side, our Water physics and model and its PROTONICS are easily extended to lower than 4 space-dimension spacetime's, such as the 3D spacetime of 2 space dimensions with the NANO meter thick interfacial layer of two phases, such as in membrane filtration, a prime focus of this Water Symposium, among the NANOTECH 2020 symposia. Our water physics and model, just described, have been confirmed by international-consensus data of pH (ion-product) and ion mobilities. These confirmations have been reported by us in six journal articles published in the last 6.5 years, which will be reviewed in this presentation. This investigation, started 6.5 years ago, has been partially supported by the CTSA.US LLC, Florida, USA, and by Xiamen University.