V. Krishnadoss, B. Kanjilal, T. Hannah, A. Masoumi, J. Leijten, I. Noshadi
Keywords: bioionic liquid, hydrogels, hemostatic, traumatic injury, bioadhesives
Summary:In cases of trauma injuries, accidents, gunshot wounds, and blast injuries the chance of severe hemorrhagic loss of blood is higher and can be fatal in certain situations. Cessation of bleeding and prevention of excessive loss of body fluids, in addition to ensuring the protection of the injured sites from pathogenic attack leading especially in septic conditions by proper coverage, is vital. In severe trauma, the organic rate of hemostasis, without assistance from external hemostatic devices and agents, is not rapid enough to prevent excessive loss of blood. The materials being used currently have certain disadvantages such as adhesion to the wet surface, no sufficient clotting, mechanical properties not comparable to the native tissue at the site of injury. To address these issues in this study we propose, engineering a highly sticky, antibacterial, and biodegradable hemostatic adhesive based on visible light photo-curable Bio-Ionic liquid (BILs) functionalized gelatin hydrogel (BiGel). Choline-based BIL is a structural precursor of the phospholipid bilayer in the cell membrane. We show that the conjugation of choline molecules to naturally derived polymers (i.e., gelatin) and synthetic polymers (i.e., polyethylene glycol) significantly increases their adhesive strength and hemostatic properties. The hydrogel adhesive exhibits a close to 50% decrease in the total blood volume loss in tail cut and liver laceration rat animal models compared to the control.