Newly Proposed Study on the Recovery of Lithium from End-of Life of Battery of Electric Vehicle

J.P. Wang
Pukyong National University,

Keywords: lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (NCA), lithium carbonate, nickel oxide, carbonation, reduction


Lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (NCA) battery was the first commercial attempt at replacing expensive cobalt with nickel in Li-ion batteries. It performs well, providing a good energy yield and is widely used due to inexpensive to produce. A study on the recovery of lithium and nickel from a cathodic material (lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide) has been investigated according to carbonation, water dissolution and hydrogen reduction, respectively. Carbonation was first conducted with cathodic material, LiNiO2, and CO2 gas at the temperature range of 600°C to 1100°C and its phase was transformed to be Li2CO3 and NiO. The lithium carbonate can be easily dissolved and concentrated in water easily since lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) has solubility in water. The lithium in water was examined by ICP-OES and its content was found to be around 2,000 ppm. On the other hand, NiO was insoluble in water and it was, therefore, left behind after water treatment. The NiO was reduced by hydrogen gas at 800°C and Ni with 97 wt.% purity was achieved in the long run.