E. Pavel, V. Marinescu
Keywords: monolayer graphene, Quantum Optical Lithography, laser, diffraction limit
Summary:Semiconductors industry requires novel materials in order to realize improved and novel nanodevices. 2D materials such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and transition metal dichalcogenides (MoS2, MoSe2, WSe2) are intensively studied. Graphene has exceptional electronic, mechanical, thermal and chemical properties and could be used for interesting applications: FETs, LCDs, photonic devices and sensors. Prototyping nanodevices below 10 nm is accessible by three methods: Electron Beam Lithography (EBL), Scanning Probe Lithography (SPL), and Quantum Optical Lithography. Quantum Optical Lithography is a diffraction-unlimited method able to write arbitrary nanopatterns. The breaking of the diffraction limit of light is explained by a coherent exciton mechanism . Complex patterns like geometrical figures and letters were obtained at 3 nm resolution  on resist substrate. Quantum Optical Lithography was applied to pattern trilayer graphene at 20 nm resolution . In our tests with CVD monolayer graphene samples, we have succeeded to produce flat surfaces of a sandwich of monolayer graphene-resist on Si substrate. Graphene sample has been written by Quantum Optical Nanowriter QON-2000 system operated at 2 μW laser power (λex =650 nm) and speed of 10μm/s. Parallel lines and squares have been obtained. References  E. Pavel, "Coherent exciton mechanism of three-dimensional quantum optical lithography", Applied Optics 54 (2015) 4613-4616  E. Pavel, G. Prodan, V. Marinescu and R. Trusca,"Recent advances in 3- to 10-nm quantum optical lithography", J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 18 (2019) 020501.  E. Pavel, V. Marinescu and M. Lungulescu, “Graphene nanopatterning by Quantum Optical Lithography “, accepted for publication in Optik– International Journal for Light and Electron Optics, Elsevier, 2 October 2019.