Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province
Novel therapy for neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease by TiO2 nanowired DL-3-n-butylphthalide (DL-NBP)
The role of DL-3-n-butylphthalide (DL-NBP), one of the constituents of Chinese celery extract in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is not known. In this innovation, neuroprotective effects of DL-NBP in PD after concussive head injury (CHI) on brain pathology were found in a mice model. CHI was inflicted in in control or PD model by dropping a weight of 114.6 g from a height of 20 cm inducing an impact of 0.224 N on right parietal skull. PD like symptoms was induced by injections of 1-metyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin (MPTP, 20 mg/kg) daily within 2-h intervals for 5 days. DL-NBP was administered (60 mg/kg, i.p.) 4 h after CHI. In addition, TiO2-nanowired delivery of DL-NBP (40 mg/kg, i.p.) were also given in identical conditions. Untreated CHI with PD showed profound increase in blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, edema formation and neuronal injuries 24 h after CHI. Treatment with DL-NBP slightly reduced brain pathology in CHI in PD mice whereas TiO2-DL-NBP was effective in reducing brain damage by only 40 mg dose in CHI. This innovation shows that DL-NBP reduces brain pathology in PD with CHI but nanodelivery of DL-NBP is far more superior for neuroprotection in PD+CHI model.
Thin Film Solid State Ceramic Battery with High Ionic Conductivity
This project is to demonstrate the development of a novel route to prepare low temperature thin film of cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) solid electrolytes based battery by exploiting a novel nanophase into the manufacturing steps. Lithium ion based ceramic solid electrolytes are considered for high performance batteries in electric vehicles and microbatteries. This project will address key challenges in making solid state battery with high conductivity a) high growth temp or post-dep temperature for Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) solid electrolytes contribute oxide formation and higher contamination resulting in low Li ion conductivity, b) low ionic activity compared to state-of-the-art liquid electrolyte (10-4 – 10-7 s/cm vs. 10-2 s/cm), c) low operating voltage window on existing solution, and 4) high resistance on grain boundaries and transport mechanism responsible for low conductivity. We will introduce a new surface passivation nano phase which is engineered to desorb well below the processing temperature. This patented nanophase will enable low contamination and low defect interface. This defect free interface will drive reduction of processing temperature to grow cubic LLZO.
In-situ, 3-D high resolution x-ray images of the well bore will provide accurate imaging allowing location and characterization of well casing or cement defects allowing remedial cement/sealant repair. A novel, compact, high-energy electron accelerator is used to create an intense high energy x-ray source. A rotating permanent magnet, target, and pencil beam collimator combined with directional x-ray detectors will provide data for creating 3-D tomographic images of casing, cement, and rock. The system has capabilities well beyond those of present ultrasonic techniques and can provide high resolution images through multiple steel well casings, cement layers, and surrounding rock structure. The accelerator production of x-rays gives a 20-fold increase in photons over conventional x-ray tubes and an order of magnitude increase in photon energy.
SRF e-beam accelerator for metal additive manufacturing
High Power electron beams are a key element of 3D metal additive manufacturing. New accelerators and guns capable of higher energies and higher average power can enable larger melt pools, speed production, and all application to be extended to larger components. Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities can achieve high acceleration gradients and be conduction cooled via high thermal conductivity materials such as high purity Aluminum - in thermal contact with the external surface of the cavity. This approach can eliminate vessels used to maintain cryogenics gases or liquids such as Helium in direct contact with the cavity outer surface. The accelerator will be transformational, demonstrating the first article of a new class of robust, mobile, cost effective, CW accelerators based on Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) technology that employ NO liquid cryogens. The accelerator will operate at a three order of magnitude over existing pulsed machines, thus drastically improving throughput. The accelerator can accommodate several modes of operation with flexibility to rapidly change the electron beam current and energy.
Deployable Gridded Ion Thruster
Ion thrusters are reliable propulsion systems with high specific impulse, making them superior for long-duration and large orbit transfers, but space limitations in small satellites constrain the use of ion thrusters. Technology: Inventors have developed a mechanical method to store a high-performance gridded ion thruster in a small volume compatible with the dimensions of a small (cubesat/nanosat) spacecraft for efficient storage during launch to orbit. Once the spacecraft is ejected from the launch vehicle, the gridded ion thruster is deployed to its full operational geometry and physical size. The small volume of the deployable chamber frees up volume for fuel. Deploying a large ion thruster whose physical dimensions are larger than the platform of a cubesat is advantageous for two reasons. First, the large size of the deployed gridded ion thruster creates a large internal volume-to-surface area ratio in the plasma chamber of the gridded ion thruster, which enables efficient propulsion ionization and high propellant utilization. Second, it creates the required surface area for the thruster to passively cool itself via radiation to the space environment.The design concept for storage and deployment involves the use of elastic, lightweight, multifunctional tiles that are folded and wrapped using slipping folds.
Microfluidic Polymer Droplet for Drug Delivery and Therapeutic Applications
Microencapsulation of cells in semi-permeable polymer networks is a promising approach for avoiding immunosuppressive therapy in allogeneic, xenogeneic and genetically modified cell transplantation. Current technology uses an electrostatic droplet generator and alginate-based polymers. Major drawbacks to this system are that cellular microspheres are limited to larger diameter sizes (>200 micrometers) and alginate-based polymers provide minimal control over the cellular microenvironment. By utilizing advanced synthetic polymers, bioactive molecules can be chemically conjugated, and the cellular microenvironment can be fine-tuned based on therapeutic application. demonstration that hydrogel microspheres using biocompatible synthetic material can encapsulate viable cells and bioactive molecules using a novel microfluidic droplet system. Cells, biomolecules, and drugs are suspended in liquid polymer solution and then extruded in droplet-form via microfluidics into a continuous phase solution containing an oil-crosslinker mixture. This unique method creates well-defined structures that allow for quick reactions and in situ delivery to the patient. The microspheres are comprised of biocompatible polyethylene glycol-based (PEG) polymer, and the diameter size of the beads can be fine-tuned by adjusting the nozzle dimensions and flow rates of the microfluidic droplet system. The hydrogel microspheres and their degradation by-products are non-toxic and do not elicit an inflammatory response.
Microgel Constructs for Tissue Repair and Regeneration
Background: Fibrinogen is a soluble plasma protein that is converted to insoluble fibrin fibers in response to damage to the vascular system. The temporary fibrin matrix promotes cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation, which are essential to wound healing. Bioengineered fibrin gels are used to promote wound healing in various clinical applications. However, most commercially available fibrin gels do not fully match the mechanical properties of the target tissues. High concentrations of protein inhibit cellular infiltration and biomaterial integration. Low concentrations of protein result in gels with weak mechanical strength that are not practical for clinical use.The ideal fibrin material would be both permissive to cell infiltration and regeneration while retaining mechanical properties appropriate to each specific application. Technology: A hybrid fibrin-microgel constructs for enhanced cell infiltration and wound healing applications. Proof of concept studies show that incorporating microgels (hydrogel microparticles) into fibrin gels generates a more porous matrix while maintaining its mechanical properties. Microgels form unique interconnected structures within the fibrin matrix, allowing for enhanced cell infiltration, remodeling, and regeneration, when compared to currently available fibrin gels.These hybrid constructs can also be used to deliver therapeutic, diagnostic, nutraceuticals, prophylactic, and cosmetic agents to a desired site.
Antibody Coated Nanoparticle Vaccines
Background: Vaccine development is considered one of the most successful public health interventions in history. The challenge of safely enhancing new vaccines’ immunogenicity presents an exciting opportunity for bringing cutting-edge immunoengineering research into the clinic. While pathogen-derived adjuvants present a variety of safety concerns that limit their clinical application, human-derived adjuvants can leverage our emerging understanding of the immune system to generate safe and protective immune responses. Technology: Julie Champion and Timothy Chang from the School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at Georgia Tech have designed a novel nanoparticle vaccine delivery system that incorporates antibodies as human-derived adjuvants to enhance the immune response of protein nanoparticles. Proof-of-concept studies utilized model ovalbumin protein nanoparticles coated with immunoglobulin M (IgM). In vivo mouse studies showed that the IgM coating significantly enhanced anti-viral Th1 and memory T cell responses compared to uncoated ovalbumin nanoparticles. While protein nanoparticles were used as a proof-of-concept, this antibody coating platform technology could theoretically be adapted to any type of vaccine particulate, including currently-licensed inactivated pathogen vaccines, to boost and extend the lifetime of protective anti-viral Th1 responses.
Wearable Technology for Cardiovascular Activity
Background: Cardiovascular disease is responsible for one in every four deaths in the US with almost half of all sudden cardiac deaths occurring outside of the hospital. Continuous heart monitoring has the potential to improve the quality of life for individuals with cardiovascular disease and potentially enable early detection and preventative care. Ballistocardiography (BCG) is a non-invasive method of measuring small movements of the body induced by the heartbeat. Technology:Inventors at Georgia Tech have developed a novel non-invasive detection method for central and peripheral cardiovascular activity using BCG. The method estimates center-of-mass BCG, a measure of the displacement of the body’s center of mass, with an accelerometer placed on the surface of the skin and a simultaneously-acquired electrocardiogram. The accelerometer could be placed on most areas of the body including the wrist (smart watch), arm (smartphone armband), chest (chest strap) or forehead (headband). The method has been demonstrated in measuring central hemodynamic force from the wrist. Measuring central hemodynamic forces from distal locations on the body, such as the wrist, could enable cuff-less blood pressure measurement from pulse-transit time and beat-by-beat wearable hemodynamics assessment.
Improved Natural Sorbents for Toxic Substance Remediation
Background:Remediation methods for natural disasters, such as oil spills, need to consider the physical location of the spill, ecosystem fragility, and economic priorities. Current remediation methods for oil spills meet some of these considerations but fail to address the others. Both natural and synthetic materials are used as sorbents; natural sorbents are more cost-effective and environmentally friendly, but they are not as effective in selective oil sorption due to their hydrophilic nature. Technology: Researchers from the Georgia Tech School of Materials Science and Engineering have improved the performance of natural sorbents with a new approach to surface modification. This method transforms cellulosic products, such as cotton, into more hydrophobic materials better suited for oil sorption applications. The transformation is achieved by deposition of inorganic species on the product surface using volatile metalorganic precursors. The transformed cellulosic products are able to perform at full capacity in real-world conditions.
Background: “RADAR” was originally an acronym for RAdio Detection And Ranging; hence, the very name emphasizes the natural solution radar provides for down-range profiling. Cross-range profiling in radar, on the other hand, has long been a challenging problem. Georgia Tech offers a breakthrough solution called “Solopulse” for the cross-range detection problem in both azimuth and elevation that only requires the transmission of a single radar pulse. Technology: Solopulse digital signal processing, combined with digitized array hardware, produces a volumetric image within a range window field of view that spans azimuth and elevation dimensions. This new array signal processing technique achieves cross-range imaging with a single, solitary radar pulse, or said more simply, with a “solopulse.” Solopulse processing is efficient and effective, and provides a landmark technology that will empower many new computed imaging applications and capabilities in radar, terahertz sensing, medical imaging, seismology, sonar, etc.
NanoVinyl Camouflage System
Military Wraps has patented its concept of a vinyl wrap visual camouflage system with nano particles inserted to provide thermal or radar suppression. The company is in the initial phases of product development but believes existing nanotechnology research expedites this process
Next generation low energy transistors
Monash is developing and patenting new topological 2D materials for use as the next generation transistors. We have developed a method of forming a topological Dirac semimetal layer on a substrate. Using this 2D material we have developed an electric field-effect structure which can be used to alter the charge carrier density and band gap in a topological Dirac semimetal film. In an ultrathin topological Dirac semimetal we can tune the bandgap by over 400 meV, from conventional insulator to topological insulator, realizing a platform suitable for a topological transistor. IBM in 2016 released their 7nm chip. The problem with current technology even though the focus has been on smaller and faster, it is still consuming the same amount of energy. Data centres and server farms are a growing industry. Unfortunately, they now represent 5% of the world energy a significant and rapidly growing source of global emissions. This has been 2020 projected to reach 320 metric tonnes of CO2 per year and is growing >7% per year (faster than any other sector). A further 10% gain in energy efficiency can have a large impact on energy usage and CO2 emissions.
Potassium-Ion Batteries with Carbon Electrodes
Li-ion Batteries (LIBs), the state-of-the-art batteries, fall short of meeting requirements for stationary batteries that are indispensible to enable the deployment of renewable energy sources, including solar and wind power. This is due to the scarcity and high cost of lithium. The basic requirements for stationary batteries are low cost and minimum maintenance. This calls for alternative battery technologies based on Earth abundant elements. Na-ion batteries (NIBs) and K-ion batteries (KIBs) are very attractive because sodium and potassium are far more abundant than lithium. For NIBs, fast progress is being made on the cathode side, where Na-ion based layered metal oxides and polyanionic compounds demonstrate encouraging capacity and cycling life. However, the real hurdle that prevents NIBs from commercialization is the lack of high performance anodes. This technology for the first time shows that graphite, soft carbon and hard carbon can reversibly insert K ions with a capacity up to 260 mAh/g in a non-aqueous electrolyte. This capacity is very close to 279 mAh/g when assuming KC8 forms. The fact that graphite functions as a KIB anode does provide an advantage for KIBs over NIBs considering the scale of the graphite anode industry established for LIBs.
Contact Lens with Transparent Biosensor Array
A wide range of diagnostic potential exists through monitoring tears in the human eye. Continuous monitoring of chemicals, metabolites, proteins, antibodies, and other biomarkers in tears are of interest since tears are readily assessable and a less complex body fluid compared to serum or plasma. Previous attempts to integrate biosensors into contact lenses has been limited to only one or two sensors, that were externally powered and were obstacle in seeing clearly due to their non-transparent nature. Further, the non-transparent nature of associated components of the biosensors such as antenna, controller circuitry, storage system, etc. limit functionality of integrating biosensors into contact lens by blocking vision. This technology integrates transparent sensors into a contact lens to detect, for example, glucose concentrations in tear fluid. The sensor array is extremely sensitive, reliable, and reversible, and because the sensors are transparent, multiple sensors can be deposited across the field of vision on the contact lens.
Hub Fin Device for Improving Propeller Efficiency
Most marine propellers consist of a central hub with attached blades in the form of helicoidal surfaces that acts as “screws” into the water to generate thrust. The rotation of the blades usually results in the formation of a strong vortex in close proximity to the propeller hub. This vortex can cause reductions in shaft torque, induce damage to the propeller, and lead to an overall loss of efficiency of a ship’s propulsion system. The invention is a hub fin device for improving the efficiency of a propeller. The device can be fit to new marine propellers or retrofit to existing propellers. The device can include a propeller having a hub and a number of propeller blades that extend radially outward from the hub. Each of the propeller blades has a trailing edge region. The fin, which can be located in the trailing edge region of at least one of the propeller blades, extends radially outward from the hub and reduces or eliminates a hub vortex that is normally present during operation of the propeller.
Eye wear for visually enhancing projected laser spot and/or line
An eye wear is capable of visually enhancing a laser spot projected by laser gun sight. The eye wear transmits the laser light but partially blocks other light. The transmittance of the laser light is close to 100%, but other light transmittance is only 20% for example. Consequently, the user will perceive such that the laser spot is amplified by 5 times.
Microarray plates – arrayable acoustic actuators for microfluidics
This technology relates to arrayable acoustic actuators that are useful for addressing and acoustically actuating individual wells or compartments of multi-well or multi-compartment microfluidic devices, such as microarray slides or trays, microtiter plates, multi-well slides, etc. It enables retrofitting of acoustic microfluidic actuators to existing standard laboratory tools such as 96- and 384-well microarray trays to allow various functions to be performed such as mixing and sample pre-concentration, to sample ejection and fluid transfer into lab equipment such as mass spectrometers enabling non-contact liquid handling. The technology enables this to be done individually on-demand from the wells in a microarray plate. The present technology takes the opposite approach to conventional instruments by employing an interdigital transducer formed on a non-piezoelectric material which produces an electric wave, that, when brought into contact with a piezoelectric material can, in turn, produce an acoustic wave which also can be utilised to actuate liquid drops (or liquids inside a mini-well) on top.
Lane Keeping and Platooning for automated road transportation
Globally, majority of technology developments in the automated transportation space have focused on addressing specific human related problems that cause these accidents. However functional safety standards that would address the system level issues causing accidents are yet to be fully established. We are building appropriately designed automated transportation solutions with functional safety addressed with a correctness by design approach not only improve safety, but also makes it more operational and fuel efficient. We are solving challenges in road transportation with 'SAE Level 4' automated driving systems, especially with buses & trucks where technology provider can 'assure’ safety for automated driving. Sirab’s approach relies on matured radar solutions with high RCS systems on vehicles and leverages dedicated lane infrastructure that allow high assurance lane keeping and reliable vehicle platooning. The core technology consists of radar based guidance and wireless control for lane keeping and platooning if vehicles.
Innovative approach to Desalination based on renewable energy: low-cost, scalable, readily deployable
Two abundant natural resources are seawater and solar. This technology provides a novel method for utilizing solar for desal with substantially reduced costs. Current use of renewables like solar PV or photo-thermal PT for desal are high cost. Even with dropping PV prices, the energy requirements of electricity for desal are so high, that PV is expensive. For PT, some approaches utilize advanced coatings such as TiNOx, but again, the cost is too high. Our novel approach addresses these issues by innovating with very low-cost materials, coatings, and films, to achieve a dramatically better conversion of light to process energy, expanding on already proven desal modes. The result is substantial reductions in up-front costs and running costs by more than 10x. The inventor and partner are advanced materials experts and had previously successfully launched an advanced coatings company, with two term sheets and >$20M in funding. Given the growing crisis for potable water, the potential impact is substantial. Already cities like Johannesburg are running out of water. Our approach utilizes abundant resources in an eco-friendly mode, addressing this crisis at a low cost that will allow rapid and broad implementation.
Ultrahigh-rate supercapacitors with large capacitance based on edge oriented graphene coated carbonized cellulous paper as flexible freestanding electrodes
Large-capacitance and ultrahigh-rate electrochemical supercapacitors (UECs) with frequency response up to kilohertz (kHz) range are reported using light, thin, and flexible freestanding electrodes. The electrode is formed by perpendicularly edge oriented multilayer graphene/thin-graphite (EOG) sheets grown radially around individual fibers in carbonized cellulous paper (CCP), with cellulous carbonization and EOG deposition implemented in one step. The resulted ∼10 μm thick EOG/CCP electrode is light and flexible. The oriented porous structure of EOG with large surface area, in conjunction with high conductivity of the electrode, ensures ultrahigh-rate performance of the fabricated cells, with large areal capacitance of 0.59 mF cm−2 and 0.53 mF cm−2 and large phase angle of −83° and −80° at 120 Hz and 1 kHz, respectively. Particularly, the hierarchical EOG/CCP sheet structure allows multiple sheets stacked together for thick electrodes with almost linearly increased areal capacitance while maintaining the volumetric capacitance nearly no degradation, a critical merit for developing practical faraday-scale UECs. 3-layers of EOG/CCP electrode achieved an areal capacitance of 1.5 mF cm−2 and 1.4 mF cm−2 at 120 Hz and 1 kHz, respectively. This demonstration moves a step closer to the goal of bridging the frequency/capacitance gap between supercapacitors and electrolytic capacitors.
Ultra-thin optical systems for enhanced night vision
Night vision devices provide us with the ability to see in low light environments and have numerous applications, both military and civilian. Current technologies work by converting the light to electrons, which are multiplied and then converted back into an image. This process results in devices that are bulky, heavy, monochromatic and opaque in the visible spectrum. We have developed a device that converts light frequencies directly from infrared (IR) to visible wavelengths, eliminating the need for conversion of optical to electronic domains. Using a novel technique of fabricating semiconductor nanocrystals embedded in a transparent polymer on a glass substrate, we have demonstrated nonlinear frequency conversion in an ultra-thin layer of nanocrystals on a glass surface. We have also used different sizes of these unique semiconductor nanocrystals to produce multiple colors of visible light from different IR frequencies. The nanocrystals allow for strong light concentration inside them, such that the incoming infrared image can mix with a strong laser beam to generate a new visible image which can be observed in a conventional CMOS sensor or by the naked eye.
3D Audio Capturing Microphone Array
Capture and reproduction of 3D audio is becoming increasingly important for various applications. Currently, binaural (2 ear-shaped microphones), hemispherical (2-14 tetrahedral arranged microphones) or spherical (24-32 microphones mounted on a spherical baffle) microphone arrays are used to capture 3D sound. The spherical array offers several advantages over the other geometries, but its geometry is bulky, limiting its potential in commercial applications. Our researchers have addressed this limitation by developing an array with reduced dimensionality and size that offers the same functionality and benefits of the spherical array. Our researchers have developed a compact array arrangement and custom DSP algorithms for enhanced 3D sound capture and delivery. The new array configuration consists of multiple co-centered circular rings, with directional and omnidirectional microphones placed on a 2D plane. Specific alignment of the microphones (to each other and along the rings) enables the directional microphones to measure the pressure gradient and vertical harmonic components of an impinging soundfield, whilst the omnidirectional microphones measure the sound pressure and horizontal harmonic components of that soundfield. The two microphone types working together in this arrangement, enables the array to extract full 3D soundfield information; information which is utilized by DSP algorithms for various sound refining processes.
Ultra-thin, focus-tunable and high-speed microlenses for miniaturized optical systems
Microlenses are assuming an increasingly important role in optical devices. With the miniaturisation of optical elements, microlens sizes have correspondingly decreased, and this ‘scaling down’ represents a major problem for focus-tunable systems which require bulky lenses or mechanical components that are difficult to integrate into highly-compact optical devices. We have developed a miniature, focus-tunable, high-speed microlens system suitable for integration into very-compact optical devices. We have established a method to fabricate the world’s thinnest microlens (< 6.3 nm) consisting of a few layers of molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and have demonstrated that the focus of our microlens can be tuned by an electrical voltage signal, removing the need for bulky mechanical components. Our system can (I) be made on a nano- to micro-metre scale, (II) be electronically tunable using either a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) device or a solid polymer electrolyte-gating device, (III) be tunable at a very high speed (in the range of milli- to nano-seconds), and (IV) have a flexible and transparent polymer substrate. This system is tailorable to specific demands in terms of size, tuning range, transmission range and transmission speed.
Bio-inspired catalyst for electrolytic hydrogen production
The development of cheaper and more efficient catalysts is necessary to make water electrolysis cost competitive with the fossil fuel based methods currently used for hydrogen production. In particular, the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) of the water splitting process suffers from slow kinetics and impractically large over potentials when operated in neutral aqueous media, which is the ideal environment for cost effective electrolyser construction and running conditions. We have developed a series of OER catalysts that are composed of closely proximate, co-located, Ca and Mn oxide species layered on a graphene based material. The graphene layer can additionally be functionalized with an organic moiety to aid electron transport and conduct the electrons between the catalyst and the electrolytic circuit. When layered on a suitable substrate this composite material facilitates the electrolytic oxidation of water and can be used as the anode in an electrolytic cell. Using a model electrochemical cell (with a Pt cathode) we have demonstrated that this system has the lowest over-potential for electrolytic water splitting in neutral pH (~ 1.3V vs Ag/AgCl), of any existing synthetic system, that we are aware of.
Circulatory Cells as Carriers for Photo-Activated Bioregulators
This invention allows targeted therapy of damaged or diseased tissues using small molecule bioregulatory molecules (SBRMs) like nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon disulfide (CS2). These therapeutic compounds are metabolized rapidly by the body if they are not encapsulated and released at the target tissue. To control dosage and release, light-activated mechanisms are employed to release these therapeutic bioregulators (PhotoSBRMs). Unfortunately, the short, high energy light required by PhotoSBRMs is scattered by tissue limiting the activation depth and making them impractical for human use. NIR light scatters less and penetrates deep into tissues making it a better activator for treatments. To use NIR light, an upconverter is employed to convert longer wavelength light to shorter wavelength and activate PhotoSBRMs. In order to target damaged or diseased tissues, cells can be used as carriers. Immune cells target sites of inflammation and easily internalize the encapsulated PhotoSBRMs to transport them. In other cases, blood cells or cells engineered to target an antigen can be used. Once the cells reach the target, NIR light can be applied to release the nitric oxide at the target location. This versatile approach could be used to help treat solid tumors or even shin splints.
Laser System for Horticultural Lighting
Light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been used for horticultural lighting for many years alongside other lighting technologies such as high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps. The total “five-year” cost of a LED horticultural lighting system is estimated to be about 2x higher than that of high pressure sodium lamps, primarily due to high capital cost. In contrast, laser diodes (LDs) can produce more power per chip area, leaving a smaller device footprint, and ultimately reducing capital cost. One LD could potentially provide similar output to tens of LEDs. Laser Diodes also act as point sources, enabling novel luminaire form factors, such as fiber-guided lighting. Additionally, semiconductor LD’s are intrinsically polarized, meaning the emitted electric field travels along a preferential direction. This increases the direction and amount of light transmitted and absorbed by plant leaves. Other benefits of LDs include full-spectrum lighting which is more representative of a true sunlight cycle.
“Artificial Photosynthesis” for Clean Air and Energy Production using Titanium-Based Metal Organic Framework (MOF) and Visible Blue Light
The accumulation of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is a major environmental concern and contributor to global warming. Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as a promising next generation technology for carbon capture and storage. Current titanium-based MOFs for photocatalytic reduction of CO2 typically use ultraviolet (UV) light. Because UV light represents only a small percentage of the sun’s rays, the applicability of these MOFs is limited. UCF’s technology is a new and low-cost technique for synthesizing titanium-based MOFs with the unique capability to reduce carbon dioxide under visible light (which is more abundant compared to UV light). The safe, non-toxic MOF is a crystalline porous material that exhibits high surface area and large pore volume. Tailored to absorb a specific color of visible light, the MOF consists of titanium oxide clusters connected through organic linkers, such as 2-amino-terephthalate. For example, the MOF’s linkers can be N-alkyl groups of increasing chain length (from methyl to heptyl) and varying connectivity. When illuminated under blue light, the MOF acts as a catalyst to effectively reduce carbon dioxide into solar fuels: formate and formamide derivatives.
Transparent Conducting Oxide Film – Indium Tin Oxide Alternative
Researchers at the University of Minnesota have developed a novel growth approach for the synthesis of doped barium tin stannate (BSO) for use as a transparent conductive oxide (TCO). The material produced has high room-temperature conductivity and mobility when the dopant is lanthanum. The value of conductivity achieved is comparable to that of the best reported value for indium-tin-oxide (ITO), the industry standard for transparent conducting oxide. While other approaches have demonstrated the promise of Lanthanum-doped BSO as a replacement for ITO, these approaches lack reproducibility and the material produced has lower conductivity and transparency. The novel synthesis approach involves using a chemical precursor for tin as a substitute for a solid tin source in a hybrid molecular beam epitaxy system. The advantages include better structural quality of the films, scalable growth rates and high reproducibility. A variety of dopants can be used including lanthanum, neodymium, and gadolinium.
Alzheimer’s disease pathophysiology following brain injury in sleep deprivation is reduced by co-administration of TiO2 nanowired delivery of AβP and Tau antibodies together with cerebrolysin
Military personnel are often prone to stress of sleep deprivation (SD) resulting in blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and leakage of serum components in the brain. This would trigger a variety of reaction within the cerebral compartments that may trigger Alzheimer’s disease (AD) like pathophysiology including amyloid beta peptide (AβP) deposition from plasma and Tau protein phosphorylation. Additional traumatic brain injury (TBI) may further aggravate AD pathology. In this innovation we used TiO2 nanowired delivery through intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of antibodies to AβP (1:20 50 ng in 100 µl, i.c.v.) and Tau (1:20, 10 µg in 100 µl) together with cerebrolysin (5 mg/kg, i.v.)-a multimodal drug after 4 and 8 h of TBI induced by an impact of 0.224 N on the right parietal skull following 48 h SD in rats. SD was induced by an inverted flowerpot model in rats. This combination of nanomedicine significantly reduces AβP and Tau concentration in the brain and prevented BBB leakage and brain pathology in SD with TBI at 48 h survival. These results may open novel therapeutic strategy to treat military personnel for such conditions effectively.
VAST Cycle Turbines and Combined Heat and Power systems
VAST® patented power cycles control combustion and recover exhaust heat by steam and hot water. VAST displaces ~90% of excess combustion cooling air, cutting compressor size by ~60%. These boost 100 MWe efficiency by 40% (to 52%), increasing with pressure. They boost net power by ~75-104% thru the same expander area at pressure ratios of 40 to 80. Efficiency increases with steam-water fraction at higher pressures. Modular Once Through Steam Generators (OTSGs) improve reliability, heat recovery, efficiency while reducing installation costs. Direct contact condensors recover net potable water for sale, while cleaning intake dust and exhaust particulates. Lab experiments of VAST’s “wet” combustion confirmed ultra clean emissions predicted by models. VAST’s next generation combustors appear scalable across wide ranges of pressure and size. They should reduce emissions >90% to California emission standards (sub ppm NOx and CO, UHC, particulates) without catalysts, ammonia or urea, up to 1500 ℃ class turbines or higher. Wet compression may cut exit temperature increase by >70%, cutting compression power by 27%, reducing tip gap and boosting compressor efficiency. Distributed delivery dramatically quiets combustion noise (~30 dB). Operating methods offer standby spinning reserve, the fastest power transient response and startup (<10 minutes), boosting grid stability.
Pathophysiology of brain blast injury is reduced by co-administration of TiO2 nanowired delivery of cerebrolysin with neprilysin and antibodies of amyloid beta peptide
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is highly prevalent in military personnel resulting them for lifetime paralysis. In this innovation we used TiO2 nanowired delivery of cerebrolysin (250 µl over 30 sec) with antibodies to neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, 1:20 50 µg/30 µl) in combination with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, 1 million cells) repeatedly over the traumatized spinal cord starting from 3 h after injury hourly application up to 8 h and found excellent recovery of functional parameters as measured by spinal cord evoked potentials (SCEP) and behavioural dysfunction 24 h primary injury. Also, cord pathology is significantly reduced at 24 h SCI. These results suggests that when our soldiers are inflicted with SCI topical application with these agents can reduce the spinal cord damage and improve behavioral outcome up to 24 h while they are transported to specialized facilities for further treatment option.