R. van der Sman, G. Frissen
Wageningen University & Research,
Keywords: sugar replacement , solublity , prediction , biscuit
Summary:Modelling sugar (replacer) crystal dissolution in complex matrices R.G.M. van der Sman, G. Frissen Wageningen-Food Biobased Research Wageningen University & Research, the Netherlands We present a thermodynamic theory for the prediction of the dissolution of carbohydrate crystals in complex media. The theory is developed with the aim to understand biscuits having (part of) the sucrose replaced by other sugars or polyols . The theory is based on the Flory-Huggins theory, we have applied earlier to complex food matrices . First, we have calibrated the theory to solutions of a single carbohydrate. We show that we can fully predict the supplemented state diagram of sucrose and of glucose, with the solubility line for both the monohydrate and the anhydrate crystal. Subsequently, we present the prediction of the theory for the solubility of an aqueous mixtures of two carbohydrates, for a wide range of temperatures and concentrations. Mixtures we have addressed as for sucrose/glucose, sucrose/invert sugar, sucrose/sorbitol, sucrose/glycerol, and sucrose/maltose – with the latter also forming monohydrate crystals. Furthermore, the validity of the theory is further analysed via the prediction of the eutonic points of binary mixtures of carbohydrate crystals. For understanding the role of sugar (replacers) in biscuits we have extended the theory towards quartenary systems of two carbohydrates, starch and water. The predictions of the theory are compared with x-ray diffraction measurements of dough and baked biscuits.  R.G.M. van der Sman. Predicting of the solubility of mixtures of sugars and their replacers using Flory-Huggins. Food & Function (2017). DOI = 10.1039/C6FO01497F  R.G.M. van der Sman. Moisture sorption in mixtures of biopolymer, disaccharides and water. Food Hydrocolloids, 32(1), 186-194 (2013).