Mechanical Characterisation of Cancer Cells in Blood Circulation

V.K. Katiyar, K.S. Basavarajappa
IIT Roorkee, India,
India

Keywords: cancer, tumor, malignant

Summary:

In the paper biomechanical properties of cancer cells have been discussed. The mechanical stimulus of shear stress plays a significant role to study the formation of tumor foci (metastasize) at sites distinct from the primary tumor. The interaction between endothelial legends and their receptors are responsible for the arrest of circulating cancer cells to the vessel walls. Due to the blockage of some capillaries the cancer cells cannot pass through the pores and then arrested to form the secondary growth. Small deformation of tumor cells at relatively high strain rates are related to the motility of tumor cell in the process of invasion such as the penetration of the basement membranes and vessel walls. Locomotion of tumor cells usually involves large deformation with relatively low strain rates. The mechanical stiffness is closely related to the arrest of cells on the vascular wall. The ability of shear stress to induce the mechanical shear stress stimulus leads to alter the surface of the tumor cell and enhances the impact of the layer of the vessel wall to bind the tumor cells. The malignant cell migrates with high velocity to any other part of the body via blood stream, lymphatic system and across the growth mainly from anaerobic glycolysis. Malignant tumor which arises from the uncontrolled division of the cells may be controlled in order to speed up the time average factor which locates the early growth of metastases. The targeted normal cell will become the major concern for the further investigation in terms of chemical compounds. Mechanical stimulus of shear stress, bending moments due to multistep deformation and locomotion of cancer cells through the blood vasculature and the cell characteristics have been analyzed numerically. The decrease in viscous parameter reflects the differences in the tumor cell structure and function. Comparison has been made with the numerical value of spherical bending. Analysis of the shear stress has been made for the various values of chemical compositions and chosen to compare the experimental observations. The significant changes in the viscoelastic properties of the cancerous cells under shear environment might well affect the tumor cell invasion, metastases as well as cell interactions.