Nanoscale Synthesis: Enabling Structures, Devices, and Architectures for Electrical Energy Storage

G. Rubloff
University of Maryland,
United States

Keywords: energy Storage

Summary:

Nano science and technology promise enhancement to batteries and capacitors through higher power at given energy, accompanied by new possibilities for better capacity retention and safety. Our NEES-EFRC program has focused on the rational design of structures and architectures involving multiple materials to confer the multifunctionality required. A critical enabler is precision multistep synthesis, in particular fabrication of material multilayers over challenging nanoscale dimensions and 3-D geometries. Several examples will be described including: Si nanowire and nanotube structures with integrated electron transport components that achieve robust Li cycling despite large volume changes; (2) nanopore battery configurations involving highly confined electrolyte environments; (3) solid state electrolyte and battery configurations for scaling safe materials to the nanoscale; and (4) 3D nanostructure forests, both regular and pseudo-random, representing architectures which pose new scientific challenges at the mesoscale. This work has been supported by Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage (NEES), an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Award Number DESC0001160.