Focused Ion Beam Lithography with New Source Technologies

J.E. Sanabia, J. Klingfus, J. Fridmann, S. Bauerdick
Raith America, Inc., US

Keywords: focused ion beam, helium, neon, gallium, gold, silicon


There are applications whereby Focused Ion Beam Lithography (IBL) can “win the race” against Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) in first delivering the answers to important questions in nanoscale science and engineering. IBL have significant advantages over EBL, like direct, resistless, and three-dimensional patterning. Although an IBL-centric process can typically be slower than a resist-accelerated EBL-centric nanofabrication process, an increasing number of IBL applications can be found over the last ten years, based on FIB systems and combined FIB-SEM microscopes upgraded with nanolithography add-on packages, and more recently from the ionLiNE, a unique, dedicated IBL instrument. Such IBL applications are motivated by the relative simplification of the overall nanofabrication process, especially for the direct processing at the nanometer scale of novel materials for which EBL processes have yet to be developed, or any materials for which EBL processes do not exist or are otherwise difficult to access. The IBL applications are wide-ranging, from nanophotonics/plasmonics to nanofluidics/nanopores. With the appreciation that the ion’s properties can have dramatic consequences on the physical and chemical nature of the resulting nanostructures, we also discuss the motivations behind applications employing either Gallium or non-Gallium species, such as Helium, Beryllium, Silicon, Gold and clusters.