Selectively targeting endosomal toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling by blend nanoparticles and applications in cancer therapy

H. Shen, H.C. Chen, X. Zhan, M.J. Coyne
University of Washington, US

Keywords: toll like receptors, NF-rB, IRF-7, inflammatory responses, cancer therapy

Summary:

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play critical roles in both innate and adaptive immune immunity. TLRs 3 and 9 are expressed in endosomal and lysosomal compartments and recognize nucleic acids. The activation of TLRs 3 and 9 leads to the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF-7) signaling pathways. The NF-κB and IRF-7 pathways induce pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as IL-6) and type I interferons (IFNs, such as IFN-α), respectively. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are associated with tumorigenesis, whereas type I IFNs can generate anticancer effects. In this talk, we will discuss how to use biomaterials to strike the balance between the pro-inflammatory responses and antitumor effects of TLR3 and 9 signaling, and their potential applications in treating triple negative breast cancers.