Low-Pressure Flame Synthesis of Carbon-Doped Titania Nanoparticles

H. Halim, J. Al-Sharab, A. Kamal, B.H. Kear, S.D. Tse
Rutgers University, US

Keywords: titania, flame, doping


Carbon-doped TiO2 nanoparticles of different phases are synthesized using a low-pressure (20 torr) premixed flame impinging on a cooled substrate. A hydrogen/ethylene mixture (1:1) serves as fuel (and carbon source), reacting stoichiometrically with oxygen, with nitrogen dilution. Titanium tetra iso-propoxide (TTIP) is carried into the flame as precursor. Strategic parametric study, along with computational simulation, is used to isolate the effects of temperature, velocity, and equivalence ratio. Equivalence ratio of the flame seems to affect phase transition of the carbon doped TiO2. Results from XRD indicate different phases of TiO2, such as rutile and anatase, for different processing conditions. TEM shows that the primary particle sizes range from 3-7nm in diameter. XPS reveals that the nanoparticles have Ti-O-C bonding structure. Finally, HRTEM and STEM-EELS analysis elucidate the type of carbon doping in our TiO2-carbon nanocomposite.