The Influence of Surface Nanoroughness, Texture and Chemistry of TiZr Implant Abutment on Oral Biofilm Accumulation

R. Xing, S.P. Lyngstadaas, J.E. Ellingsen, H.J. Haugen
University of Oslo, NO

Keywords: nanoroughness, biofilm, abutment, hydrogen

Summary:

Biofilm formation on dental abutment has been suggested to impair soft tissue integration, and further migration of the biofilm into the peri-implant sulcus may cause localized mucositis and eventually peri-implantitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nanoroughness, texture and chemistry of different dental abutment surfaces on biofilm accumulation using an intraoral splint model, thus optimize abutment surface for improved soft tissue integration. Eight nanorough TiZr surfaces were produced by polishing, machining, cathodic polarization and acid etching. Surface topography was examined using field emission scanning electron microscope and a blue light laser profilometer. Surface chemistry was analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Surface hydrophilicity was tested by measuring contact angle on the surfaces. A human in vivo study using a splint model was employed to evaluate oral biofilm accumulation on these surfaces. Nanoroughness (< 214 nm) positively correlated with biofilm formation. Flat and grooved textured surfaces harbored fewer microbes than irregular surfaces. Surface hydrophilicity did not seem to affect biofilm formation. Hydrogen implementation by cathodic polarization which has previously been suggested promoting soft tissue seal, did not affect microbial adhesion, and thus can be used to optimize abutment surface.