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Three-Dimensional Electrodeposition for 1 micron Wire Bonds

D. Dlesk, M.-F. Yu
Nanofab3D Inc., US

Keywords: electrodeposition, wirebonding, interconnect, packaging


Traditional wire-bonding and flip-chip technology have satisfied the semiconductor interconnection needs for device packaging for decades. However, downscaling either technology to interconnect pad pitches on the order of a few microns has proven to be difficult. This increases the on-chip space needed for the interconnect pads, reduces the number of chips that can be produced per wafer, and consequently increases the cost per chip. It is expected that downscaling the traditional solder-based interconnect cannot meet either the thermomechanical reliability requirement or the current density requirement at very fine pitches. Thus, continued progress in electronics miniaturization, depends on downsizing to a few microns, the wire bonds required for wiring integrated chips into circuit boards. We developed an electrodeposition method that exploits the thermodynamic stability of a liquid meniscus to “write” pure copper and platinum three-dimensional structures in an ambient air environment. We demonstrated an automated wire-bonding process that enabled wire diameters of less than 1 micron and bond sizes of less than 3 microns, with a breakdown current density of more than 10^11 amperes per square meter for the wire bonds. The technology was used to fabricate high-density and high-quality interconnects, as well as complex three-dimensional microscale and nanoscale metallic structures.
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