Progress on Magnesium Batteries

T.S. Arthur, F. Mizuno
Toyota Research Institute of North America, US

Keywords: next-generation batteries, magnesium, automotive

Summary:

The future of green mobility depends on continued research into alternative energy storage such as batteries, fuel cells and super-capacitors. However, to exceed the demands of current hybrid, plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles, new battery systems with high energy density are required. Magnesium is an attractive alternative to current lithium-ion technologies because of the transfer of 2 electrons per magnesium-ion, higher volumetric capacity of magnesium metal compared to lithium metal (3833 mAh/cm3 Mg vs 2061 mAh/cm3 Li), and greater natural abundance. However, many challenges must be met to promote magnesium batteries as a practical candidate for the next generation of batteries. One of the pivotal issues is a complete understanding of magnesium deposition and dissolution at the anode through advanced analytical techniques. For example, X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a powerful tool to study and understand the interfaces within Mg batteries. Here, we will discuss the first in situ observation of Mg deposition using Mg K edge soft X-rays, and the implications on the design of new magnesium electrolytes.