Getting the inside view of nanomaterials with a SAXS/WAXS instrument

S. Rodrigues, M. Fernandez- Martinez, P. Høghøj, F. Bossan, R. Mahé
Xenocs, FR

Keywords: characterization, SAXS/WAXS, nano


Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) is proving to be a powerful technique for getting information related to the structure of nano-materials. By recording the x-ray scattering pattern, one obtains reciprocal space information that can be transformed or modeled to extract real-space information from the sample [1]. Information such as nanoparticle size, size-distribution and surface to volume ratio can be obtained in the range from 1 nm to beyond 100 nm. The method requires little sample preparation, is non-destructive and in contrast to microscopy probes a volume of the sample thus giving a statistically meaningful result. When combined with Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS) one can also get information on crystalline structure. A broad range of materials and applications can be addressed by SAXS and WAXS techniques, ranging from soft condensed matter, polymers, bio-materials to nanoparticles, fibers and even structured surfaces which can be measured in the Grazing Incidence (GISAXS) geometry. We will present results from various material systems including biological solutions, nano-particles, polymers, solid etched structures highlighting how the provided information can be complementary to other analytical methods. A short review of the considerable progress made in laboratory SAXS/WAXS instrumentation such as high brilliance microsource and advanced detectors will be done. Rapid measurements and high data quality opens the way towards dynamic measurements with parameters like temperature, humidity, flow, DSC as well as high precision structure resolutions on highly diluted solutions.