Nanomaterials as Nanocomposite Fillers: Cytotoxicity at Different Stages of Their Life Cycle

E. Mas del Molino, G. Vilar, G. Janer, E. Fernández-Rosas, S. Vázquez-Campos
LEITAT Technological Center, ES

Keywords: nanotoxicology, nanocomposite, life cycle


Since the production and utilities of NM have been growing exponentially we have decided to perform cell viability tests and mechanistic assays using different cell lines to assess the potential cytotoxicity of raw MWCNT, hydrophilic SiO2 NP and hydrophobic SiO2 NP. Furthermore, we have studied the cytotoxicity and the mechanisms at the different stages of the life cycle of the three NM as well as the polyamide-6 (PA6) NC. NM were extracted from NC by chemical dissolution followed by filtration or centrifugation (hydrophilic and hydrophobic SiO2), and by calcination (all NM). We also evaluated the physicochemical properties at each life cycle stage. We used A549 cells and HepG2 cells to evaluate cell toxicity by the Alamar Blue® test. Calcinated MWCNT were cytotoxic for the two cell lines evaluated and MWCNT extracted from NC before the aging process were cytotoxic to HepG2 cells. Raw hydrophilic SiO2 and extracted by chemical dissolution and filtration were cytotoxic to both cell lines. Calcination reduced markedly the cytotoxicity independently of aging. None of the hydrophobic SiO2 evaluated were cytotoxic. Calcination caused modifications on the NM that resulted in changes in their cytotoxicity. Industrial processes had little impact on the SiO2 toxicological properties.