Cytotoxicity of Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles in Schwann Cells

V.K. Idikuda, A.R. Jaiswal, Y.Y.W. Wong, A. Bhushan, S.W. Leung, J.C.K. Lai
Idaho State University, US

Keywords: human exposure, health hazards, cytotoxicity, inflammatory responses

Summary:

Diverse applications of metal oxide nanoparticles in various industries have been accelerating in the last decade. Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles have been employed in ceramics, and as adhesive and additive in chemical raw materials, leading to their increased human exposure, thereby posing potential health hazards. Because cytotoxicity of MgO nanoparticles in neural cells derived from the peripheral nervous system is unknown, we have investigated the effects of MgO nanoparticles on Schwann cells. Our results indicated treatment with MgO nanoparticles for 24 hours induced dose-related cytotoxicity in Schwann cells. Moreover, such treatment also induced distinct morphological changes in Schwann cells leading us to investigate the hypothesis that these nanoparticles elicit inflammatory responses in Schwann cells. Consistent with this hypothesis was our finding that the nanoparticles induced enhanced expression of cytokines such as IL-6. Thus, our findings may have pathophysiological implications in toxicity of MgO nanoparticles in neural cells derived from the peripheral nervous system.