Scalable 3- dimensional batteries

F. Roumi, C. Cid, M.R. Hoffmann, J. Roumi
California Institute of Technology, US

Keywords: battery, three dimensional, scalable, high power

Summary:

The conventional geometry in current electrochemical cells is the easiest configuration to implement, but is far from optimal and imposes many restriction, such as a)requiring thin electrodes, b) posing small cell sizes, c) requiring large amount of supporting materials d) complicated design at the pack-module level to meet performance/cost needs. In addition to the nature of the materials, these limitations are also attributed to the inhomogeneous cell design and limited transport paths, in terms of ionic, electronic, and heat transport. The conventional parallel plate design requires large amount of supporting materials that reduces the available energy to about 25% of the active materials. Recently, there have been a few attempts to make semi-solid batteries and 3-d nano-batteries; however, they are very complicated and expensive, if scalable. Over the past several decades, much effort has been focused on the development of new high energy chemistries. Complementary to these efforts, we work on a novel macro-scale 3-dimensional high-power, fast charging cell design. Historically, structural alterations of the basic electrochemical configuration resulted in the commercialization of the lead-acid battery, which has been the dominant battery for more than a century.