Clean Technology 2010

New Process for Production of Bio-Diesel from Vegetable Oil

G. Caputo, A. Giaconia, S. Sau, C. Felici, M. Lanchi, P. Tarquini

Keywords: sulfur, hydrogen, bio-diesel


NEW PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF BIO-DIESEL FROM VEGETABLE OIL Low-cost, high-capacity processes for the conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals are essential for expanding the utilization of carbon neutral processes, reducing dependency on fossil fuel resources, and increasing rural income. The quality of bio-oils can be improved by the partial or total elimination of the oxygenated functionalities present. Two main deoxygenation methods have been studied for this purpose. The first comprises bio-oil cracking over solid acid catalysts at atmospheric pressure, resulting in simultaneous dehydrationdecarboxylation. The other utilizes typical hydrotreating conditions, high hydrogen pressures in combination with conventional catalysts, for the hydrogenation of unsaturated groups and hydrogenation-hydrocracking of large molecules. Although hydrotreating is extremely effective, techno-economic analyses reveal its economics to be unfavorable for the production of the fuel-type products it affords. If renewable hydrogen is readily available, then this may not be such a disadvantage; however, this approach is unsuited for the distributed stabilization/upgrading of pyrolysis oil. Hydroprocessing of vegetable oils allows easy transformation of fatty acid triglycerides into hydrocarbons. In this study is represented a new process for the production of hydrogenated bio-oils starting with “waste” of petroleum processing (sulfur) to get hydrogen, using concentrated solar energy, for hydrogenation of bio-oils.
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