Quantitative Assessment of Nanoparticle Induced Oxidative DNA Damage Using Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry

E.J. Petersen, B.J. Marquis, P. Jaruga, M. Dizdaroglu, B.C. Nelson
National Institute of Standards and Technology, US

Keywords: nanoprticle, genotoxicity

Summary:

Hyphenated mass spectrometry (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) techniques have been employed as one of the primary analytical tools for investigating the effects of ionizing radiation, chemical/biological carcinogens and oxygen derived free radicals on the induction and subsequent repair of oxidatively-induced DNA damage (DNA lesions) in living systems. Certain DNA lesions, such as 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-OH-Gua), are not only established mutagens, but have also been utilized as biomarkers of systemic oxidative stress. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has established a comprehensive research program focused on identifying and characterizing the DNA damaging mechanisms of commercially relevant engineered engineered nanoparticles (NPs) using models of increasing biological complexity through the application of isotope-dilution hyphenated mass spectrometry tools for the quantification of oxidatively-induced DNA damage. We present an overview of our recent findings from studies on metal (AuNP), metal oxide (CuO NP), and carbon-based (SWCNTs and MWCNTs) nanoparticles. For example, we did not observe in a recent study that gold nanoparticles induced DNA damage to HepG2 cells [1], but significant DNA damage was observed in plants after exposure to CuO NPs [2].